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Breast Cancer

Breast Cancer


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What is it?

It’s a cancer that develops in the breast tissue. It is also known as ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma or carcinoma heat wave.
It occurs when there is abnormal and uncontrolled growth of cells in this tissue.

In most cases, breast tumors are benign, they are not cancer but cyst formations.

These cysts are fluid bags that do not require special treatment, except that for their large size they become very painful.



Types of breast cancer:

  • Ductal carcinoma in situ: It originates in the walls of the ducts. It is a much localized cancer that has not spread to other areas or has metastasized. This disease is considered a 'premalignant' and can easily be removed almost 100% of cases.
  • Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (or invasive): It starts in the breast duct, passes through and goes to breast adipose tissue. From there it can spread to other parts of the body. It is the most common type of cancer.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ: Start in the mammary glands. It is not a true cancer, but increases the risk of women developing a malignant tumor in the future. Usually occurs before the menopause. When detected, the patient must follow a strict control.
  • Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (or invasive): Hard to detect a cpn mammography. Starts in the mammary gland but can spread and destroy other tissues.
  • Inflammatory carcinoma: Is rare and only accounts for 1% of the cases of breast cancer. It is very aggressive, growth is rapid. It is characterized by blushed skin of the breast and increased temperatures of it, the breast skin becomes thick and hollow, like an orange, and there may be wrinkles and bumps.


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Stages of breast cancer

The stages are the phases of cancer progress. The American Joint Committee on Cancer uses the letters "TMN".

The letter "T" is accompanied by a number ranging from zero to four that indicates the size of the tumor and spread in the same to the skin or thoracic wall. The higher the number the greater the tumor size and increased its spread.

The letter "N" is accompanied by a number ranging from zero to three, and indicates whether the cancer has spread to lymph nodes near the breast and if so, whether the nodes are joined to other structures.

The letter "M" is accompanied by a number ranging from zero to one and indicates whether the cancer had metastasized (spread) to distant organs.

 

The stages in breast cancer ranging from 1 to 4 are:

Stage I: At this stage the tumor is less than 2 cm and there is no spread to the other areas. The prognosis for survival at 5 years is 98%.

Stage II:S It is even less than 2cm but affects the lymph nodes under the arm, or is between 2 and 5cm and may or may not have metastases, or the size is greater than 5 cm and no lymph node involvement. The prognosis for survival at 5 years is 76-88%.

Stage III: It is divided into stages A and B.

  • A: The tumor is less than 5cm and has spread to the lymph nodes and these are joined each other or other structures. Or the tumor is larger than 5 cm and lymph nodes are affected. The outlook of life in 5 years 56%

  • B: Here the breast cancer spread to tissues near the breast or lymph nodes near the breastbone. The prognosis for survival at 5 years is 46%.

Stage IV: This occurs when the cancer metastasizes to other organs, which are usually the bones, lungs, liver, brain or skin. The prognosis for survival at 5 years is 16%.



Risk Factors

  • People that have increased risk of developing breast cancer have in common the following conditions because they increase the chances of developing the disease:
  • Women. Women are more likely to have breast cancer than men, but men can also suffer.
  • Women over 60 years. The risk of breast cancer increases with age.
  • BRCA1 and BRCA2V. People who have these genes in a mutated form are likely to develop cancer before age 60.
  • History of breast cancer in the family.
  • Previous benign breast disease.


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Breast cancer symptoms

Often, in the early stages of breast cancer, there are no symptoms.

The first sign is usually a lump that feels different from surrounding breast tissue. It is often noted with jagged edges, or hard parts, it does not hurt when touched. Sometimes color change occur and tension in the skin of the affected area.

However, there are malignant tumors that are regular and smooth to the touch.
That is why if you feel any abnormalities in the breast should immediately consult the doctor.

Other symptoms that occur in breast cancer are:

  • Nipple pain or retraction. The pain is not really a symptom of breast cancer, although most women with breast cancer feel pain in early stages.
  • Irritation or fissures of the skin.
  • Inflammation of part of the breast.
  • Redness or scaling of the skin or nipple.
  • Nipple secretions.

Diagnosis

To detect breast cancer using the following tools:+

  • Monthly self-exam
  • Mammography
  • MRI
  • Chest radiographs
  • Biopsy
  • TAC
  • Ultrasound
  • Other



Treatment

The treatment is determined according to tumor size and stage.

Surgery in breast cancer is used only when the tumor is less than 1cm, in other cases is usually accompanied by chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Radiation therapy can also be used if necessary.

Surgery for breast cancer is performed according to biopsy results and can then retain or remove the breast, either in part (partial mastectomy) or completely (total mastectomy), in some cases the surgeons removed muscle tissue chest or nearby lymph nodes.


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