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Prostate cancer

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The importance of an early rectal examination

Prostate cancer is the second most popular type of cancer that affects the male population. Appears more often in men older than 50 years.

Prostate cancer occurs when cells of the male organ (prostate), mutate and begin to reproduce uncontrollably. Over time, these malignant cells can spread and affect other parts of the body, this cancer has a predilection for metastasis or to move to bones and lymph nodes.

When this excessive reproduction of cells occurs, the prostate grows and in doing so, press the bladder and urethra, preventing the proper and normal output of urine.

There are many factors that influence prostate cancer development. Including genetics and diet. However, to date, no known factors that can be modified to eliminate the risk of developing the disease and provide effective prevention.



What is the prostate?

The prostate is a small gland, located above the rectum and below the bladder.

Its function is to secrete seminal fluid, which forms part of semen, which carries sperm.

The prostate surrounds the urethra at the point where it connects to the bladder. Therefore, when the prostate is enlarged, the man has trouble urinating or having sex.

It is surrounded by lymph nodes, which makes the cancer spreads more easily to other nodes and any area of ​​the body.

The prostate is an organ that continues to grow during most of the life of men. Because of this, after 60 years, many men present a condition known as “benign prostatic hypertrophy, which by its symptoms can be confused with prostate cancer.

30% of men over age 50 have prostate cancer




Symptoms

In the early stages of prostate cancer there are many symptoms.
Among the most common symptoms of prostate cancer, include:

  • Urinate frequently, especially at night
  • Inability to urinate
  • Unable to stop or control urination
  • Painful urination
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Problems getting an erection
  • Painful erection
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Pain in the lower abdomen, thighs or hips

 

Detection

Prostate cancer grows very slowly. Therefore, until it has spread to other organs, here are no significantly differences in the survival rate if caught sooner or later. But because we never know when it could have begun developing, regular screening tests are of great importance.
Diagnostic tests for prostate cancer:

  • DRE
  • Examination of blood PSA
  • Transrectal ultrasound
  • Biopsies



The DRE and PSA tests are essential.



When it detects something unusual in them, the procedure is to perform a transrectal ultrasound, wich means, the introduction of a probe through the rectum to make a report of the volume, shape and design of the prostate. When something appears abnormal in this study, we proceed to take a biopsy, which, by laboratory examination determines the presence or absence of cancer cells.
From age 50, every man should visit once a year the urologist and the examinations for the detection of prostate cancer.


Treatment

The prostate cancer treatment varies in each case. For some men to undergo surgery is best, while others are undergoing treatment in "wait and see", which consists of keeping track and monitoring when the tumor is detected early before performing a radical procedure.
The treatment of prostate cancer is most flattering for men under 70.


Ways to treat prostate cancer are:

  • Radical prostatectomy: is performed when the cancer has spread to other structures and involves removing the prostate along with nearby structures such as the seminal glands.
  • Transurethral resection: of the prostate was performed in cases of benign prostate hyperplasia and in those cases where you cannot perform complete removal. Only removes the part of the prostate that surrounds the urethra.
  • Cryosurgery: involves an incision between the anus and rectum which freezes the cancer cells to keep the cancer in one place.

  • Radiotherapy: A local treatment that uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Brachytherapy: A form of internal radiation. They are painless small capsules that are inserted into the prostate, which generates radiation by weeks or months to kill cancer cells.
  • Hormonal therapy: This does reduce levels of androgens, which are causing the growth and development of cancer cells. It is used in patients with advanced cancer.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy seeks, in patients with prostate cancer, slow the progression of the disease and lessen its symptoms.

 

Complications of treatment in prostate cancer


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